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            全國|北京|上海|天津|重慶|河北|河南|山西|山東|江蘇|浙江|湖北|湖南|陜西|安徽|福建|江西|廣東|廣西|四川|云南|海南|遼寧|吉林|黑龍江|貴州|甘肅|青海|內蒙古|寧夏|新疆|西藏

            重要知識點(三)-2019年化學復習資料-福建函授專科

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月23日




            最簡式相同的有機物


            1.CH2O:甲醛、乙酸、甲酸甲酯、葡萄糖



            2.CnH2nO:飽和一元醛(或飽和一元酮)與二倍于其碳原子數和飽和一元羧酸或酯;

            舉一例:乙醛(C2H4O)與丁酸及其異構體(C4H8O2)



            3.CH:C2H2和C6H6



            4.CH2:烯烴和環烷烴





            同分異構體(幾種化合物具有相同的分子式,但具有不同的結構式)


            1、羧酸—酯—羥基醛 CnH2nO2

            2、二烯烴—炔烴 CnH2n-2

            3、氨基酸—硝基烷

            4、單烯烴—環烷烴 CnH2n

            5、醇—醚 CnH2n+2Ox

            6、醛—酮—環氧烷(環醚) CnH2nO



            能發生取代反應的物質及反應條件


            1.烷烴與鹵素單質:鹵素蒸汽、光照;


            2.苯及苯的同系物與①鹵素單質:Fe作催化劑;

            ②濃硝酸:50~60℃水浴;濃硫酸作催化劑

            ③濃硫酸:70~80℃水浴;


            3.酯類的水解:無機酸或堿催化;


            4.鹵代烴水解:NaOH的水溶液;


            5.醇與氫鹵酸的反應:新制的氫鹵酸(酸性條件);


            6.酚與濃溴水 (乙醇與濃硫酸在140℃時的脫水反應,事實上也是取代反應。)


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