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            2017年成人高考高起點歷史.地理復習資料-世界現代史高分突破考點:資本主義的興起

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2017年06月20日

            一、資本主義的興起

              資本主義的最初萌芽

              出現地點:中國-明朝中后期15世紀商品經濟比較發達的江南地區(蘇、杭)絲織業;西方(意大利)14——15世紀意地中海沿岸城市(佛羅倫薩、威尼斯、熱那亞、米蘭)毛紡織業。包買商人-從包買原料到包銷商品,直接控制了獨立經營的手工業者。失去獨立經營的手工業者成了包買商的雇傭工人。那些開設手工工廠的場主,同城市的富商、銀行家等一起,開始形成新的階級——資產階級。

              新航路的開辟

              內因:西方資本主義萌芽的出現,推動了新航路的開辟;造船技術提高;羅盤針在海船上普遍使用;人們開始相信地圓學說。

              外因:馬可菠蘿的游記描述了中國和東方的富庶、繁榮;奧斯曼帝國控制了東西方交通要道,使東西方貿易受阻。

              過程:1487——1488:葡萄牙人迪亞士發現非洲西南端好望角;1497:葡萄牙人達伽馬在第二年開辟通向印度的新航線;1492:意大利水手哥倫布代表西班牙發現美洲大陸;1519:葡萄牙海員麥哲倫率領船隊環球航行。

              葡萄牙和西班牙的殖民擴張葡萄牙的殖民擴張:非洲東海岸一些城市;騙得中國澳門的居住權;美洲的巴西。西班牙的殖民擴張:除巴西以外的整個南美洲;菲律賓。

              宗教改革德意志資產階級的代表人物馬丁路德反對教會出售免罪符,德意志宗教改革是一場宗教外衣掩飾下的反封建斗爭。瑞士出現卡爾文教派等,這些教派統稱新教。

              文藝復興

              背景:新興的資產階級在意識形態領域展開的反對教會精神統治和封建神學的斗爭。實質:外在表現為復興古希臘、古羅馬文化,實質為資產階級文化的興起。意義:思想文化領域的一次偉大的變革,對歷史起了巨大的推動作用。

              人物:但丁,意大利文藝復興的先驅《神曲》由地獄、煉獄、天堂三部分組成;達芬奇,《最后的晚餐》《蒙娜麗莎》;莎士比亞,英國大戲劇家兼詩人喜劇《第十二夜》悲劇《羅密歐與朱麗葉》、《哈姆雷特》歷史劇《亨利五世》;哥白尼提出的太陽中心說,基督教會支持的地球中心說;布魯諾大自然無限說;加利略制造天文望遠鏡。


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