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            歷史事件(從統一到分立)-2019年歷史復習重點-福建函授專科

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月19日





              1.三國分立


              (1)官渡之戰是東漢末年,黃河中下游的袁紹和曹操兩大軍事集團之間進行的一場兼并戰爭。200年,曹操和袁紹決戰官渡。曹操以少勝多,大敗袁紹。后又陸續消滅一些軍閥,基本上統一了北方。


              (2)208年,曹操為統一全國率軍南下,與孫權、劉備聯軍戰于赤壁。由于曹軍士兵多為北方人,不習水戰,且曹軍中發生疾病,戰斗力削弱,還因為曹操本人傲慢輕敵,為對手所乘。因此孫、劉聯軍利用火攻,大敗曹軍。赤壁之戰奠定了三國鼎立局面的基礎。


              (3)赤壁之戰后,曹操統一全國的希望成為泡影,于是向西北擴大了統治區域,孫權和劉備的勢力在東南和西南地區得到鞏固和發展。220年,曹丕廢漢獻帝,在洛陽稱帝建魏,東漢亡。221年,劉備在成都稱帝,國號漢,史稱“蜀漢”;222年,孫權稱王,幾年后稱帝,建都建業。三國分立局面形成。


              2.淝水之戰


              背景:4世紀下半期,氐族貴族建立的前秦統一了黃河流域。前秦皇帝苻堅不顧上下反對,企圖南下一舉滅掉東晉。


              經過:383年,苻堅率前秦軍進攻東晉,東晉宰相謝安派謝石、謝玄帶兵迎擊,雙方決戰于淝水。結果,東晉取勝,前秦大敗。


              前秦失敗的原因:①秦軍兵力雖多,但戰線過長,指揮失當。②前秦統治不穩,人心不齊,戰斗力不強。③東晉軍隊戰斗力較強。


              特點及影響:淝水之戰是一次以少勝多的著名戰役。戰后不久,前秦統治瓦解,北方再度陷入分裂和混戰狀態,東晉乘機收復了不少失地。形成了南北對峙局面。


              3.北魏孝文帝改革


              背景:北魏統一黃河流域后,北方出現民族大融合趨勢。北魏孝文帝吸取漢族地主的統治經驗,進行了改革。


              內容:①經濟上,實行均田制。485年,頒布了均田令,以封建國家的名義對土地實行分配和調整。②政治上,遷都洛陽并采用漢族統治階級的政治制度。③文化上,接受漢族先進文化。令鮮卑貴族用漢姓、穿漢服、說漢話、同漢族通婚。


              作用:使北方經濟恢復發展;加速了北方各族的封建化進程;促進了民族大融合。


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