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            常用文言虛詞“其”-2019年高起點語文復習資料-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月30日

            常用文言虛詞“其”-2019年高起點語文復習資料-福建成教


            代詞

              可指代人、事、物等。與“之”不同的是,上古漢語中“其”時常隱含結構助詞“之”的意思,與后續詞語組成名詞性結構,因此通常只用作定語。魏晉以后,“其”的適用范圍有所擴大,也可用作主語。例如:

            1、河內兇,則移其民於河東,移其粟於河內。(《寡人之於國也》前一“其”指河內,可譯為“那里的”;后一“其”指河東,可譯為“河東的”)

            2、于是焉河伯始旋其面目,望洋向若而嘆曰。(《莊子秋水》其:指代河伯,可譯為“他的”)

            3、愈嘗從事于汴、徐二府,屢道于兩府間,親祭于其所謂雙廟者。(《張中丞傳后敘》其:指代當地百姓,充當主謂結構中的主語)

            4、其后用兵,則遣從事以一少牢告廟。(《五代史伶官傳序》其:指代前事,可譯為“此”、“這”)

            5、夫其以李伶為絕技,無所干求。(《馬伶傳》其:指代馬伶,可譯為“他”,充當句中主語)

              此外需要說明的是,古漢語中“其”的指代對象可以靈活多樣,作為指示代詞,可用作特指、遠指、近指;指代人物時,不僅可指代第三人稱,也可指代第一、第二人稱,這都需要根據上下文確定。例如:

            1、長者聞之,得無厭其為迂乎?(《報劉一丈書》其:此為作者自指,可譯為“我”)

            2、李生足下:生之書辭甚高,而其問何下而恭也!(《答李翊書》其:指李生,這里可譯為“你”)


            語氣詞

              作為語氣詞,“其”通常置于句首或句中,可表示多種語氣。

            1、表揣測語氣,可譯為“大概”、“恐怕”、“也許”、“可能”等。例如:

            (1)雖然,待用于人者,其肖于器邪?(《答李翊書》)

            (2)千金,重幣也;百乘,顯使也。齊其聞之矣。(《馮諼客孟嘗君》)

            (3)若是,則與吾業者,其亦有類乎?(《種樹郭橐駝傳》)


            2、表反問語氣。可譯作“豈”、“難道”、“哪里”等。例如:

            雖如是,其敢自謂幾于成乎?(《答李翊書》)

            若闕地及泉,隧而相見,其誰曰不然?(《鄭伯克段于鄢》)


            3、表叮囑、勸勉、期望、命令等語氣,通常用于祈使句中,可譯為“一定”、“千萬”等。例如:

            (1)與爾三矢,爾其無忘乃父之志!(《五代史伶官傳序》其無忘:可譯作“千萬不要忘記”)


            4、強調語氣,可譯為“究竟”。例如:

            (1)天下之不亡,其誰之功也?(《張中丞傳后敘》) 


            連詞

              連結并列的句式表示選擇關系,可譯作“是……還是”或“……還是……”等。例如:

              如是者,其亦足樂乎?其無足樂也?(《答李翊書》)


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