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            常用文言虛詞“所”-2019年高起點語文復習資料-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月31日

            代詞

              “所”也是不能獨立充當句子成分的輔助性代詞,所組成的結構也是名詞性結構。與“者”不同的是:

                (1)“所”置于其他詞或短語之前,而不是其后;

                (2)“所”的后面只能接動詞,而且通常是及物動詞。因此,如果不及物動詞、形容詞等與“所”字組合,它們自身一般也都變得具有及物動詞的性質;

                (3)“所”字之所以通常與及物動詞組合,是因為此時的“所”具有動詞賓語的性質。因此,“所”字結構說明的是受動作行為支配的對象物,而“者”字結構則是說明發出動作行為的主動者、實施者(如“所見”指看到的東西:“見者”則指看東西的主體),二者的意義差別是明顯的,決不可混為一談。例如:

                (1)君臣相顧,不知所歸。(《五代史伶官傳序》)——所歸:歸處。

                (2)縱一葦之所如,凌萬頃之茫然。(《前赤壁賦》)——所如:去往的地方。

                (3)豈敢盤桓,有所希冀?(《陳情表》)——所希冀:企盼的內容。

                (4)五帝之所連,三王之所爭,仁人之所憂,任士之所勞,盡此矣。(《莊子秋水》)——所連:指禪讓的君位;所爭:爭奪的政權;所憂、所勞:指為此而憂慮、操勞的國事。

                (5)大軍不知廣所之,故弗從。(《李將軍列傳》)——所之:去的地方、去處。

                (6)非臣隕首所能上報。(《陳情表》)——所能上報:指能夠回報的恩德。


              此外,還有一些由“所”組成的常見結構應當注意:

              “所……者”

              此一結構表達的意義等同于“所”字結構,而不等同于“者”結構,亦即說明受動作行為支配的對象,而不是發出或實施動作行為的主體。例如:

                (1)所欲忠者,國與主耳。(《張中丞傳后敘》)——所欲忠者:愿意效忠的對象。

                (2)然則是所重者在乎色、樂、珠、玉,而所輕者在乎人民也。(《諫逐客書》)——所重者:看重的東西;所輕者:輕視的東西。

                (3)孟嘗君曰:“視吾家所寡有者。”(《馮諼客孟嘗君》)——所寡有者:缺少的東西。

                (4)生所為者與所期者,甚似而幾矣。(《答李翊書》)——所為者與所期者:指文章的寫作與期盼達到的水平。 


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