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            心理咨詢(1)-2019年專升本教育理論復習重點-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月03日

                 一、心理咨詢概述

                (一)心理咨詢的概念:心理咨詢是通過人際關系,應用心理學原理與方法,給來訪者以幫助、啟發和教育,以改變其認知、情感和態度,促進來訪者人格發展和改善社會適應能力的過程。

                (二)心理咨詢的特點:主要有幫助來訪者做出自己的選擇、獲得學習能力提升以及人格的健康發展。


                二、心理咨詢與心理治療的關系心理咨詢與心理治療的關系兩者存在著聯系與區別。

                (一)心理咨詢與心理治療的聯系

                1.強調良好人際關系的建立:心理咨詢與心理治療都強調在良好的人際關系氛圍中,運用心理學方法解決心理或精神方面的問題。

                2.遵循的心理學理論、方法與原則一致。

                心理咨詢與心理治療所遵循的心理學理論、方法與原則是一致的。

                (二)心理咨詢與心理治療的區別

                1.工作對象不同

                心理咨詢主要面對正常人在社會生活中產生的心理困惑問題,它主要涉及個體的意識層面。

                2.遵循的模式不同

                (1)心理咨詢主要遵循發展與教育模式。

                (2)心理治療則遵循醫學模式,它是醫療工作的一個方面,主要任務是治病救人,機構主要設在醫療系統。

                3.工作任務的側重面不同

                心理咨詢貼近個體的生活,心理治療貼近個體的疾病。心理咨詢與心理治療雖有上述區別,但這些區別并非本質。兩者在許多方面交錯、重疊、互有滲透,難以截然分開。心理咨詢中有心理治療的作用,心理治療中也少不了心理咨詢。兩種性質較相似的工作,只在某些側重面和層次上有所區別而已。


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