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            心理咨詢(4)-2019年專升本教育理論復習資料-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月04日

                六、心理咨詢的主要理論與方法

                (一)精神分析理論

                精神分析法是以弗洛伊德創立的精神分析理論為基礎發展形成的心理治療理論與方法。常用的方法有:

                1.宣泄療法:宣泄療法是指通過心理咨詢者的啟發引導,讓來訪者將心中積郁的苦悶和內心矛盾沖突傾訴出來,從而恢復心理平衡的方法。

                2.領悟療法 :領悟療法是通過來訪者對癥狀原因的領悟而產生效果

                3.暗示療法:暗示療法是指通過心理暗示作用,解除來訪者疑慮,增強康復信念,改善不良心境,減輕精神負擔,從而起到舒解的作用。


                (二)行為主義理論

                行為主義理論認為,人的異常行為和正常行為一樣,都是環境塑造的產物,都是通過后天學習、訓練和培養而獲得。常用的行為矯正法方法有:

                1.系統脫敏:系統脫敏是行為治療的一項基本技術。常用于恐懼癥、焦慮癥的治療。

                2.厭惡療法:厭惡療法常用于治療性變態行為或煙、酒、藥物依賴等。

                3.強化、懲罰與消退法:強化、懲罰與消退法是根據操作性條件反射原理發展起來的。


                (三)人本主義理論

                人本主義療法主要是以羅杰斯的自我理論為基礎形成的。這種理論認為,個人自我觀念中的沖突和矛盾是導致心理異常的原因。人本主義療法常用方法有以下幾種:

                1.當事人中心療法:當事人中心療法,是羅杰斯創導的、影響廣泛的心理治療理論、方法與技術。

                2.支持療法:支持療法是以提供支持為心理咨詢與心理治療的方法。

                3.交朋友小組:交朋友小組是羅杰斯開創的一種集體心理治療方法。


                (四)認知行為理論

                1.性格的 A-B-C理論

                A-B-C性格理論是理性情緒療法的理論基礎。這個理論中的A代表誘發事件;B代表當事人在遇到誘發事件后產生的信念,C代表當事人的情緒和行為結果。理性情緒療法認為,當事人對誘發事件所持的信念;B是情緒和行為;C是直接原因,而誘發事件;A只是情緒和行為的間接原因。

                2.非理性信念:非理性信念會使人心煩意亂、焦慮苦悶,容易導致心理障礙的產生。這些非理性的信念主要有11種。第一,自己絕對要獲得周圍的人的喜歡和贊許,尤其是其中重要人物的喜歡和贊許;第二,要求自己是全能的,自己在任何地方、任何時候都不能失敗;第三,世界上有很多無用的、邪惡的人,對他們應該排斥,給以嚴厲譴責和懲罰;第四,當生活、工作和學習中出現不如意事情時,就有大難臨頭的感覺;第五,人生路上充滿艱辛,人生的責任和壓力非常重,應設法逃避現實;第六,人生的不愉快都是由外在環境造成的,因此人是無法克服痛苦和困惑的;第七,對危險和可怕的事物應高度警惕,時刻關注,隨時準備它們的發生;第八,一個人以往的經歷決定了自己的行為,而且是永遠無法改變的;第九,人是需要依賴他人而生活的,因此總希望有一個強有力的人讓自己依附;第十,人應該十分投入地關心他人,為他人的問題傷心難過,這樣自己的情感才能得到寄托。第十一,人生中的每個問題,都要有精確的答案和完滿的解決方法。一旦不能如此,就非常痛苦。

                3.主要方法:第一,非理性信念辨析。這是理性情緒療法的主要方法。第二,認知家庭作業。這是配合非理性信念辨析的方法而進行的。第三,合理情緒想象。這是通過想象來體驗自己所不適應的情境。


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