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            【福建成人高考】專升本民法之我國民法的基本原則

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年11月03日

                  我國民法的基本原則

              (一)民法基本原則的概念

              民法的基本原則是指在民事立法和司法中必須遵守的,其效力貫穿民法始終的根本性規則。

              民法的基本原則反映民事活動的根本屬性,其內容具有普遍的約束力,是指導民事立法、民事審判活動和民事主體的民事活動的最高準則。民法的基本原則是克服法律局限性的工具。

              (二)我國民法的基本原則

              1.自愿原則

              《民法通則》第4條規定:民事活動應當遵循自愿……原則。從而確立了本原則。自愿原則是指民事主體在不違反法律的條件下能夠充分根據自己的內心意愿,設立、變更和終止民事法律關系的原則。自愿原則也稱“意思自治原則”。該原則只有在私法領域才可適用,而且主要在財產關系中適用,在人身關系中其適用的空間不大,因為人格關系和身份關系原則上是不能由主體創設的。同時,應注意的是,自愿原則并非當事人可以任意作為,在民事活動中當事人也須遵守強制法的有關規定。

              (1)當事人有依法進行某種活動或者不進行某種活動的自由,他人無權干涉。 (2)當事人有選擇行為相對人、行為內容與行為方式的自由。

              (3)當事人有權約定糾紛的解決方式,明確糾紛發生后的解決辦法。

              貫徹自愿原則的同時不得違反法律中的強制性或者禁止性規定,否則其行為無效。

              2.平等原則

              《民法通則》第3條確立了這個原則。平等原則是指民事主體在民事活動中法律地位平等,當事人之間不存在一方服從另一方的關系的原則。平等作為民法的基本原則之一,具有歷史文化性,是社會進步的表現。平等有兩種:一種是結果平等,即不論人的天賦、才能、機遇等如何,通過民事活動產生的結果應大致均等;二是機會平等,即社會為每個人提供的機會是相同的,平等的,至于結果上的不平等,是正常的,符合規律的。在市場經濟條件下,平等只能是機會平等,民法的作用和任務是保障民事主體在機會平等的基礎上,進行競爭。但是,結果平等也是法律關注的,如果出現了普遍的結果不平等影響了人類的進步,法律就應當修改有關的規則,調整機會的合理性。

              3.公平原則

              公平原則要求民事主體應本著公平的觀念從事民事活動,正當行使權力和履行義務,在民事活動中兼顧他人和社會公共利益。

              這一原則的含義有三個方面:第一,民事主體參加民事活動的機會是公平的;第二,民事主體在享有權利和承擔義務方面不能顯失公平;第三,民事主體在承擔民事法律責任方面,條件是公平的、相同的,通常,按過錯來承擔責任,雙方無過錯但有損害的,由雙方合理分擔損失。

              4.等價有償原則

              等價有償原則是指在交換財產的民事活動中,民事主體應當按照價值規律交換財產的原則。《民法通則》第4條規定了這一原則。

              5.誠實信用原則

              誠實信用原則是指在民事活動中必須實事求是、講究信譽、不規避法律、兼顧他****益的原則。《民法通則》第4條確立了這一原則。

              這一原則,要求民事主體以誠實、善意的態度行使民事權利和履行民事義務,使當事人的都能得到應得的利益,不容許損人利己;當發生特殊情況,使當事人之間的利益失去平衡時,法官可以公平裁量,調整雙方的利益。

              6.禁止濫用權利的原則

              禁止濫用權利原則是指行使民事權利不得超越正當界限、不得損害他****益、不得違反法律和社會公德、不得損害社會公共利益的原則。在傳統民法上,禁止濫用權利是誠實信用原則的當然內容。《民法通則》第7條、第58條規定了這一原則。行使權利超過了正當界限,違反法律或社會公德、侵害他人民事權益或社會公共利益,就構成濫用權利,行為人應當承擔相應的民事責任。


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