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            【福建成人高考】專升本民法之民事法律關系(1)

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年11月09日

                 民事法律關系

              一、民事法律關系的概述

              (一)民事法律關系的概念 民事法律關系是平等主體之間發生的、符合民事法律規范的、以權利義務為內容的社會關系,是

              民法對平等主體之間的財產關系和人身關系加以調整的結果。

              (二)民事法律關系的特征

              民事法律關系有以下特征:

              1.主體地位平等;

              2.民事權利和民事義務對等;

              3.權利救濟和補償性。

              (三)民事法律關系的要素

              民事法律關系的要素,就是構成民事法律關系應當具備的因素。民事法律關系的要素包括主體、內容、客體三項。

              1.主體

              民事法律關系的主體是指參加民事法律關系、享有民事權利承擔民事義務的人。包括自然人、法人和參加到民事法律關系中的國家。主體的法律價值在于確定利益的享有者,使每一個在法律上 應當有獨立利益者成為法律上的人,能夠按照自己的意思,在不違反法律的條件下通過享有權利和承擔義務,享受其個人生活利益。

              2.內容

              民事法律關系的內容,是民事主體在法律關系中享有的民事權利和承擔的民事義務。 3.客體

              民事法律關系的客體,是指民事權利和民事義務共同指向的對象。民事法律關系的客體一般包括物、行為、智力成果和其他權益(如人身利益)。隨著民事法律關系的發展,民事法律關系客體的種類還會不斷增加。

              二、民事權利的概念

              民事權利,是指民事主體為實現某種利益,依照法律規定或者合同約定,根據自己的意愿實施或不實施某種行為的可能性。它包含三個方面的內容:

              1.享有權利的人可以在法定范圍內,依自己的意思進行民事活動,實現其利益;

              2.享有權利的人可以要求負有義務的人為一定行為,以實現自己的利益;

              3.享有權利的人因他人的行為而使權利不能實現時,有權要求司法機關予以保護。 關于民事權利的本質,學者的認識并不一致,主要有三種觀點:

              第一,意思說。由德國的溫特夏德和薩維尼所倡。這種意見認為,權利的本質是意思自治,或意思的支配,權利反映了人的意思能夠自由支配的范圍。意思是權利的基礎,沒有意思就沒有權利。 第二,利益說。為德國的耶林所主張。這種學說認為,權利的本質就是法律所保護的利益,凡依法屬于個人的利益,無淪精神的、物質的、都是權利。

              第三,法力說。以德國學者梅克爾為代表。此學說認為,權利的本質是法律上之力,權利由特定利益和法律上之力構成。

              上述學說中,“利益說”和“法力說”揭示了法律和人的行為背后的社會經濟原因,有較大的客觀性和合理性,構成了現今民法理論對權利本質認識的思想淵源。

             


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