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            福建成人高考-2019年生態學基礎常見問答題(3)

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年11月11日

            1、簡述生物群落的演替特征。


              (1)演替的方向性:


              ①群落結構由簡單到復雜;


              ②物種組成由多到少;


              ③種間關系由不平衡到平衡;


              ④穩定性由不穩定到穩定。


              (2)演替速度:先鋒階段極其緩慢,中期速度較快,后期(頂極期)停止演替。


              (3)演替效應:前期的生物和群落創造了適應后期生物和群落生存的條件,但對自己反而不利,最終導致群落的替代。


            2、影響演替的主要因素有哪些?


              (1)植物繁殖體的遷移、散布,動物的活動性;


              (2)群落內部環境的改變;


              (3)種內和種間關系的改變;


              (4)環境條件的變化;


              (5)人類活動。


            3、群落交錯區有哪些特征?


              (1)位置上:位于兩個或多個群落之間。


              (2)生態環境:較復雜多樣。


              (3)種類多樣性高,某些種的密度大。


            4、簡述群落成層現象。


              (1)植物的地上成層現象,主要原因光照


              (2)植物的地下成層現象,主要原因礦物質、養分、水;


              (3)動物的成層現象,主要原因食物;


              (4)水生群落的成層現象,主要原因光、食物、溫度。


            5、層片具有哪些特征?


              (1)屬于同一層片的植物生活型相同,并具有相當地個體數目,而且相互間有一定的聯系;


              (2)在群落中具有一定的小環境;


              (3)在群落中占有一定的空間和時間。


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