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            問答題精選(2)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月28日



            1、影響演替的主要因素有哪些?

            (1)植物繁殖體的遷移、散布,動物的活動性;

            (2)群落內部環境的改變;

            (3)種內和種間關系的改變;

            (4)環境條件的變化;

            (5)人類活動。


            2、簡述群落成層現象。

            (1)植物的地上成層現象,主要原因光照

            (2)植物的地下成層現象,主要原因礦物質、養分、水;

            (3)動物的成層現象,主要原因食物;

            (4)水生群落的成層現象,主要原因光、食物、溫度。


            3、層片具有哪些特征?

            (1)屬于同一層片的植物生活型相同,并具有相當地個體數目,而且相互間有一定的聯系;

            (2)在群落中具有一定的小環境;

            (3)在群落中占有一定的空間和時間。


            4、簡述生物群落的演替特征。

            (1)演替的方向性:

            ①群落結構由簡單到復雜;

            ②物種組成由多到少;

            ③種間關系由不平衡到平衡;

            ④穩定性由不穩定到穩定。

            (2)演替速度:先鋒階段極其緩慢,中期速度較快,后期(頂極期)停止演替。

            (3)演替效應:前期的生物和群落創造了適應后期生物和群落生存的條件,但對自己反而不利,最終導致群落的替代。


            5、群落交錯區有哪些特征?

            (1)位置上:位于兩個或多個群落之間。

            (2)生態環境:較復雜多樣。

            (3)種類多樣性高,某些種的密度大。


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