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            問答題精選(4)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月03日

            1、主要頂極理論有哪些,基本觀點各是什么?

            (1)單頂極:同一氣候區內,無論其他生態條件如何,只有一個氣候頂極群落。

            (2)多頂極:同一氣候區內除氣候頂極外,還有土壤、地形等頂極群落。

            (3)頂極-格局:同一氣候區內,可有多個頂極,但各頂極呈連續變化格局。


            2、頂級群落有哪些主要特征?

            與演替過程中的群落相比,頂極群落的主要特征有:

            (1)生物量高;

            (2)總生產量 群落呼吸小;

            (3)凈生產量低;

            (4)群落結構和食物鏈(網)復雜;

            (5)物種多樣性和生化多樣性高;

            (6)群落穩定性高。


            3、簡述云杉砍伐跡地上的次生演替系列。

            (1)采伐跡地階段(雜草群落階段);

            (2)先鋒樹種階段(闊葉樹種階段);

            (3)陰性樹種定居階段(云杉定居階段)(云杉、闊葉混交林);

            (4)陰性樹種恢復階段(云杉恢復階段)。


            4、簡述熱帶雨林群落的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:赤道及其兩側濕潤地區。

            (2)生境:終年高溫多雨。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種群組成較為豐富;

            ②群落結構極其復雜;

            ③喬木具有板狀根、裸芽、莖花等特征;

            ④無明顯季相變化。


            5、陸地生物群落有哪些分布規律?

            (1)緯度地帶性;

            (2)經度地帶性;

            (3)垂直地帶性


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