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            問答題精選(5)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月04日

            1、簡述常綠闊葉林的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:主要分布在亞熱帶大陸東岸,中國東南部為世界面積最大、最典型。

            (2)生境:亞熱帶季風季候,夏熱冬溫,無太明顯干燥季節。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成豐富(不及熱帶雨林);

            ②群落結構復雜(不及雨林);

            ③板根、莖花等現象幾乎不見;

            ④優勢植物為樟科、殼斗科、山茶科和木蘭科;

            ⑤無明顯季相變化。


            2、簡述溫帶草原的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:溫帶大陸內部,荒漠與森林之間。

            (2)生境:半干旱、半濕潤氣溫,低溫。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成貧乏;

            ②以耐低溫、旱生禾本科,豆科為主;

            ③草本具典型旱生特征;

            ④季相明顯而華麗;

            ⑤群落結構簡單,僅草本層。


            3、簡述熱帶草原的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:熱帶森林與熱帶荒漠之間。

            (2)生境:終年高溫,降水分配不均,干濕季明顯。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①有星散分布的耐旱喬木;

            ②喜熱禾本科植物占優勢;

            ③季相明顯;

            ④大型草食動物和大型肉食動物豐富。


            4、簡述北方針葉林的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:北半球寒溫帶,貫通歐亞、北美大陸。

            (2)生境:氣候寒冷、冬季長而寒冷,夏季短而溫和,終年濕潤。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成較貧乏;

            ②喬木以松屬、云杉屬、冷杉屬和落葉松屬組成;

            ③群落結構簡單;

            ④不同樹種的森林外貌和季相不同。


            5、簡述落葉闊葉林的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:北美大西洋沿岸,西、中歐、亞洲東部。

            (2)生境:歐洲為溫帶海洋性氣候,亞洲、北美為溫帶季風季候,共性是四季分明,冬季較干冷。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成較豐富;

            ②優勢樹種為殼斗科、槭樹科、樺樹科、楊柳科;

            ③群落結構簡單;

            ④季相明顯。


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