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            問答題精選(6)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月04日

            1、簡述苔原的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:北冰洋沿岸。

            (2)生境:冬季酷寒且漫長,夏季涼而短促,土壤具永凍層。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成貧乏;

            ②優勢植物是苔蘚、地衣和極耐寒小灌木;

            ③植株低矮;

            ④生長極其緩慢;

            ⑤多年生地面芽為主。


            2、簡述生態系統的碳循環途徑。

            (1)陸地:大氣二氧化碳經陸生植物光合作用進人生物體內,經過食物網內各級生物的呼吸分解,又以二氧化碳形式進入大氣。另有一部分固定在生物體內的碳經燃燒重新返回大氣。

            (2)水域:溶解在水中的二氧化碳經水生植物光合作用進入食物網,經過各級生物的呼吸分解,又以二氧化碳形式進入水體。

            (3)水體中二氧化碳和大氣中二氧化碳通過擴散而相互交換,化石燃料燃燒向大氣釋放二氧化碳參與生態系統碳循環,生物殘體也可沉入海底或湖底而離開生態系統碳循環。


            3、簡述荒漠的分布、生境和群落特征。

            (1)分布:極端干旱地副熱高壓帶和大陸中心。

            (2)生境:極端干旱。

            (3)群落特征:

            ①種類組成極其貧乏;

            ②優勢植物是超旱生灌木,肉質旱生植物和短命植物;

            ③群落結構極其簡單,許多地方連一個層次都沒有;

            ④生物量和生產力極低。


            4、簡述生物地球化學循環(小循環)和地球化學循環(大循環)的特點。

            小循環:必須有生物參與,范圍小、流速快、周期短。

            大循環:可以無生物參與,范圍大、流速慢、周期長。

            小循環寓于大循環之中,沒有大循環就沒有小循環。小循環對大循環也有影響,自從生物界誕生以后,許多物質的大循環都有了生物的參與。


            5、簡述生態系統能量流動概況。

            (1)先由綠色植物把太陽光能變成植物體內的生物能(化學能)。

            (2)各級消費者和分解者通過食物網把能量逐級傳遞下去。

            (3)能量在每一營養級都有呼吸消耗,而且,上一營養級的能量也不可能全部轉化到下一營養級中,因此,能流越來越細。


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