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            問答題精選(7)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月05日

            1、簡述生態平衡的概念與標志。

            概念:在一定時間內,生態系統中的生物和環境之間、生物各種群之間,通過能量流動、物質循環和信息傳遞,達到高度適應、協調和統一的狀態。

            標志:能量和物質輸入、輸出平衡,生物種類和數目相對穩定,生態環境相對穩定,生產者、消費者、分解者構成的營養結構相互協調。


            2、簡述生態失調的概念及標志。

            概念:生態系統的自我調節能力是有一定限度的,當外界干擾超越了生態系統自我調節能力 閾限而使其喪失自我調節能力時,謂之生態失調。

            標志:物種數量減少,環境質量降低,生產力衰退,生物量下降。


            3、簡述溫室氣體濃度升高的后果。

            (1)出現溫室效應,使地表溫度升高。(2)導致極地和高山冰雪消融速度加快、海水受熱膨脹,使海平面上升,沿海低地受到海水的侵襲。(3)改變了全球水熱分布格局,部分濕潤地區可能變得干燥,而部分干燥地區可能變得濕潤。(4)改變了生態系統原有的平衡狀態,一部分生物可能不適應環境的改變而瀕危或滅絕。


            4、簡述當前世界不可更新資源的變化趨勢和變化原因。

            趨勢:日益枯竭。

            原因:全球儲量有限,地域分布不均,過量開采和消耗,不能更新。


            5、簡述生物量和生產力的區別。

            生物量是指生態系統在某一特定時刻單位面積上生產的有機物質的量,單位是:干重g m2或J m2。而生產力是指單位時間、單位面積上生產的有機物質量,表示的是速率,單位是:干重g m2·a或J m2·a。


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