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            問答題精選(8)-2019年生態學基礎-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月05日

            1、請簡述層片的特征是什么?

            (1)屬于同一層片的植物是同一個生活型類別,但同一生活型的植物種只有其個體數量相當多,而且相互之間存在著一定的聯系時才能組成層片。

            (2)每一個層片在群落中都具有一定的小環境,不同層片小環境相互作用的結果構成了群落環境。

            (3)每一個層片在群落中都占據著一定的空間和時間,而且層片的時空變化形成了植物群落不同的結構特征。

            (4)在群落中,每一個層片都具有自己的相對獨立性,而且可以按其作用和功能的不同劃分為優勢層片、伴生層片、偶見層片等。


            2、為什么說城市生態系統是一類非獨立性的生態系統?

            (1)城市生態系統對其他生態系統的依賴性大。

            (2)人類的生活和生產資料靠其他生態系統輸入。

            (3)人類的生活和生產廢棄物要運到其他生態系統去。


            3、分析比較遠洋生態系統表層和深層的特征。

            表層:光照充足、生產者多、生物種類和個體數量多、生產力高。

            深層:光線微弱、幾乎無生產者、生物種類和個體數量少、生產力低。


            4、二十世紀,生態學界出現了四大著名生態學派,請寫出學派的名稱及其代表人物,以及他們的研究重點。

            英美學派:英國坦斯列,美國克萊門茨

            研究重點:植物群落的演替。

            法瑞學派:法國布朗-布蘭柯,瑞士盧貝爾

            研究重點:特征種和區別種對植物群落進行分類并且建立了一套植被等級分類系統。

            北歐學派:德日茲

            研究重點:對群落進行分析,研究了森林群落與土壤pH值的關系。

            前蘇聯學派:蘇卡切夫

            研究重點:以歐亞大陸寒溫帶森林土壤為研究對象,著重于草原利用、沼澤開發,北極的資源評價。


            5、生物體對低溫和高溫的適應有哪些?

            1、低溫

            植物:(1)形態上:落葉,芽具有鱗片,油脂,植物體表面有絨毛和蠟粉,植株矮化;(2)生理上:細胞中水分減少,細胞液濃度上升,導致糖類、脂肪積累,束縛水保存好,自由水失去,降低冰點,使植物在冰點以下不結冰。

            動物:(1)降低熱傳導(最直接方式);(2)增加產熱;(3)局部異溫性;(4)降低體內溫度;(5)行為調節;(6)耐受凍結;(7)超冷。

            2、高溫

            植物:(1)形態上:葉變小,其排列發生變化,葉變態,密生絨毛;(2)生理上:細胞汁液濃度增加,通過旺盛的蒸騰帶走大量熱量。

            動物:(1)通過皮膚血流量來散熱;(2)改善身體外部環境;(3)蒸發散熱,如出汗、呼吸等。


            6、請簡述生態因子的幾個特點?

            (1)綜合性:每一個生態因子都是在與其它因子的相互影響、相互制約中起作用的,任何一個因子的變化都會在不同程度上引起其它因子的變化。

            (2)非等價性:對生物起作用的諸多因子是非等價的,其中必有1-2個起主要作用的主導因子。主導因子的改變常引起許多其它生態因子發生明顯變化。

            (3)不可替代性和互補性:生態因子雖非等價,但都不可缺少,一個因子的缺失不能由另一個因子來替代。但其一因子的數量不足,有時可以靠另一因子的加強而得到調劑和補償。

            (4)限定性:生物在生長發育的不同階段往往需要不同的生態因子或生態因子的不同強度。因此某一生態因子的有益作用常常只限于生物生長發育的某一特定階段。

            (5)直接作用和間接作用。


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