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            第三章藝術種類考點(1)-2019年藝術概論復習資料-福建專升本

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月25日



              考點1 藝術分類的五種主要方法

               (1)以藝術作品的存在方式為依據。以藝術作品的存在方式為依據,可以將藝術分為時間藝術(音樂、文學等)、空間藝術(繪畫、雕塑等)和時空藝術(戲劇、影視等)。

               (2)以藝術作品對客體世界的反映方式為依據。以藝術作品對客體世界的反映方式為依據。以藝術作品對客體世界的反映方式為依據,可以將藝術分為再現藝術(繪畫、雕塑、小說等)、表現藝術(音樂、舞蹈、建筑等)和再現表現藝術(戲劇、影視等)。

               (3)以藝術作品的物化形式為依據。以藝術作品的物化形式為依據,可以將藝術分為動態藝術(音樂、舞蹈、戲劇、影視等)和靜態藝術(繪畫、雕塑、建筑、工藝等)。

               (4)以藝術形態的物質存在方式與審美意識物態化的內容特征為依據。以藝術形態的物質存在方式與審美意識物態化的內容特征為依據,可以將藝術分為造型藝術、實用藝術、實用藝術、表情藝術、語言藝術(文學)和綜合藝術。

               (5)以對藝術作品的感知方式為依據。以對藝術作品的感知方式為依據,可以將藝術分為聽覺藝術(音樂等)、視覺藝術(繪畫、雕塑等)和視聽藝術(戲劇、影視等)。  


              考點2 造型藝術

              造型藝術是指運用一定的物質材料(如顏料、紙張、泥石、木料等),通過塑造靜態的視覺形象來反映社會生活與表現藝術家思想情感的藝術。造型藝術主要包括繪畫、雕塑、攝影、書法等藝術。


              考點3 繪畫藝術

              繪畫藝術是一門使用一定的物質材料,運用線條、色彩和塊面等元素,通過構圖、造型和設色等手段,在二維空間(平面)里創造出靜態的視覺形象或情境的藝術。繪畫藝術在造型藝術中處于基礎地位。


              考點4 繪畫藝術的分類

              繪畫藝術的種類,根據使用材料的不同,可分為中國畫、油畫、版畫、水彩畫、水粉畫等;根據表現對象的不同,可分為肖像畫、風俗畫、風景畫、靜物畫、歷史畫等;根據作品形式的不同,可分為壁畫、年畫、連環畫、宣傳畫、漫畫等。


              考點5 繪畫藝術的基本特征

              (1) 應物像形的平面性、靜態性。

              (2) 空間關系的幻覺性、多重性。

              (3) 形象刻畫的具體性、豐富性。


              考點6 雕塑藝術

              雕塑藝術是一門直接利用物質材料,運用雕刻或塑造的方法,在三維空間(立體)中創造出實體形象的藝術。


              考點7 雕塑藝術的分類

               (1)從體裁來區分,雕塑可以分為紀念性雕塑、建筑裝飾性雕塑、城市園林雕塑、宗教雕塑、陵墓雕塑、陳列性雕塑。

               (2)從表現手法和形式來區分,雕塑可以分為圓雕、浮雕、透雕。

               (3)從樣式來區分,雕塑可以分為頭像、胸像、半身像、全身像、群像等。

               (4)從制作工藝來看,雕塑可以分為雕和塑兩大類。雕,有石雕、木雕、玉雕等;塑,有泥塑、陶塑等。 

             

             考點8 雕塑藝術的基本特征

              (1) 物質性、技藝性、立體性的統一

              (2) 單純性造型與象征性觀念的融合。


             


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