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            第四章藝術創作考點(二)-2019年藝術概論復習資料-福建專升本

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月27日



              考點8 藝術創作的心理要素

              藝術創作的心理要素主要包括審美感知 、審美想象 、審美情感 和審美理解 。

              審美感知 

              感知包括感覺和知覺。感覺是指客觀事物經由人的感覺器官在人的大腦中的主觀映象,是對事物個別屬性的反映。審美感覺是人在審美活動中的一種特殊感覺。知覺,則是在感覺的基礎上對事物較為綜合的、整體性的把握,審美知覺的對象不是事物的客觀物理屬性,而是事物的審美屬性。審美感覺和知覺通常是交織在一起、共同發揮作用的。

              審美想象 

              1、審美想象是在記憶表象的基礎上,經過有目的的組織和改造,創造新的藝術形象或意境的過程。審美想象是藝術家獲得豐富審美經驗以及從事創作活動最重要的因素之一。想象分為再造性想象(知覺想象)和創造性想象,藝術家的創作活動主要依靠創造性想象。

              2、審美想象的特征是:第一,審美想象離不開表象記憶;第二,審美想象是積極的、能動的和創造性的;第三,審美想象要符合生活的邏輯和情感的邏輯。

              3、審美聯想是指審美主體由當前所感知的事物引發而想起有關的另一事物的心理活動。想象和聯想有著密切的聯系,聯想往往能激發藝術家的想象。想象與聯想可以相互交叉與融合。

              審美情感 

              1、情感是主體對客體現實的一種特殊的心理反應,審美情感則是審美主體對客觀對象是否符合自己的審美需要所作出的一種心理反應。

              2、審美情感在創作活動中是聯系感知、表象、想象、聯想、理解、判斷等心理因素的中間環節,它是推動藝術創作思維進展的內驅力。

              3、與人的日常情感相比,創造主體的審美情感更加豐富、深沉和細膩,是多層次、多方面的。同時,具有很強的個性色彩。

              審美理解 

              1、審美理解是作為主體的人在審美過程中對其與客體世界的關系、對藝術活動及其規律的認識、領悟或把握。

              2、審美理解是和感知、情感、想象等心理因素交織在一起的、領悟式的理解。

              3、審美理解是美感深化的表現和必要環節,能夠推動想象和聯想的展開,并促成藝術意蘊的升華。


              考點9 藝術思維的類型

              藝術思維包括形象思維、抽象思維和靈感。

              (1)形象思維。形象思維是藝術家在創作活動中從發現和體驗生活,到進行藝術構思、形成藝術形象,并將其物化為藝術形象或藝術意境的整個過程中所采取的一種主要的思維方式,它是以具體的、整體性的形象為思維材料所進行的復雜心理活動。形象思維具有具象性、情感性、創造性等特點。形象思維的具象性是指形象思維始終要以具體可感的事象或物象作為思維的材料;形象思維的情感性是指形象思維過程中滲透著豐富的審美感情色彩;形象思維的創造性是指形象思維能夠在原有思維材料基礎上促成新形象或新意境的生成。

              (2)抽象思維。抽象思維是運用概念來進行判斷、推理和論證的思維方法。形象思維與抽象思維在藝術家的創作活動中共同起作用,二者可以相互補充和促進。

              (3)靈感。靈感是指藝術家在創作過程中的某一時間內,突然出現的精神高度亢奮、思維極為活躍的特殊心理現象,呈現為遠遠超出平常水準的創作沖動和創作能力,藝術構思或傳達通過頓悟獲得飛躍。靈感的特征有:突發性,指靈感突入其來、不可預料;超長性,指靈感到來是創造思維極其活躍,遠遠超出平常水平;易逝性,指靈感持續時間短暫且容易被干擾消失。形象思維與靈感有一定聯系,二者往往交互作用。


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