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            第二章 藝術的起源-2019年專升本藝術概論復習考點-福建成考

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月01日

            1、人類最早的藝術活動開始于:上萬年前的冰河時期。


            2、人類實踐與藝術起源的多元決定論:

            a.在原始造型藝術中有些抽象的幾何圖案可能源于生產和生活;例如:一根波紋的線條兩邊畫著許多點就表示一條蛇,附近有黑角的長菱形則表示魚;螺旋形紋飾是由鳥紋變化而來,波浪形的曲線紋和垂幛紋是由蛙紋演變而來.......

            b.最早的樂器往往是用獸骨獸皮制成,最早是在浙江余姚河姆渡遺址發現的距

            今7000年的骨哨。

            c.神話被當作是文學最早的源頭。


            3、藝術起源:

            a“模仿說”(希臘哲學家德謨克利特認為藝術是對自然的模仿)

            b“游戲說”(最早康德,“希勒—斯賓賽理論,希勒《美育書簡》),人的“游戲”是以使用工具的物質生產活動為基礎,并具有了超越動物性的情感和想象等社會內容,成為一種具有符號性的文化活動。正是人的社會實踐活動使得人類和動物界真正區分開來。而藝術起源于“游戲”的說法脫離了人類社會實踐,所以仍然不能解開藝術誕生的真正奧秘;

            C“表現說”:(美國美學家蘇珊.朗閣提出符號說)。

            d“巫術說”:(英國愛德華.泰勒在他的《原始文化》提出;弗雷澤在他的《金枝》也提出)

            e“勞動說”:(希爾恩《藝術起源》;

            普列漢諾夫《沒有地址的信》)從藝術發生學的觀點來看,生產勞動顯然是藝術起源的根本原因。


            4、綜上所述:從藝術起源的多元決定論中可以看出藝術的生產歷史經過了一個由實用到審美,以巫術為中介,以勞動為前提的漫長歷史發展過程,其中也參透著人類模仿的需要,表現的沖動和游戲的本能。藝術的產生雖然是多元決定的,但是,“巫術說”與“勞動說”更為重要。從根本上講,藝術的起源最終應歸結為人類的實踐活動。


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