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            呼吸系統(3)-2019年專升本醫學綜合復習考點-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月22日



              第三節 肺


              一、肺的位置和形態

              肺位于胸腔內,縱隔的兩側,左、右各一。肺質軟而輕.呈海綿狀,富有彈性。幼兒的肺呈淡紅色,成人由于吸入空氣中的灰塵顆粒的,不斷沉積,肺的顏色變為灰暗,而老年人的顏色更深,呈藍黑色。

              左肺狹長,右肺略粗短,每側肺的形態都近似半個圓錐體,都有一尖、一底、兩面和三緣。肺的上端稱肺尖,呈純圓形,向上經胸廓上口突入到頸根部,高出鎖骨內側1/3部約2~3cm。肺底與膈相鄰,向上微凹,故又稱膈面。肺的外側面圓凸,鄰近肋和肋問肌。肺的內側斷與縱隔相依,中央處有一橢圓形凹陷.稱肺門。此處是主支氣管、血管、淋巴管和神經等進出肺的部位。這些出入肺門的結構被結締組織包繞在一起形成肺根。肺的前緣和下緣都較銳利,左肺前緣下部有一弧形凹陷,稱左肺心切跡。肺后緣鈍嘲。


              二、肺的分葉

              兩肺共有五葉,左肺被斜裂分為上、下兩葉;右肺被水平裂和斜裂分為上、中、下三葉。


              三、肺下界的體表投影

              兩肺下緣均沿第6肋軟骨下緣斜向外下方,在鎖骨中線處與第6肋相交,在腋中線與第8肋相交,在肩胛線與第10肋相交,近后正中線處,達第10胸椎棘突的高度。


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