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            感覺器官組成(2)-2019年專升本醫學綜合復習重點-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月06日

              第二節 前庭蝸器


              一、前庭蝸器的組成

              前庭蝸器即位聽器,又稱耳,包括位覺器和聽器,二者在機能上雖不同,但在結構上關系密切。

              耳包括外耳、中耳和內耳三部分。外耳和中耳是集聲、收音并傳導聲波的結構,內耳是接受聲波和位覺刺激的感受器。


              二、中耳的組成

              中耳包括鼓室、咽鼓管、乳突竇、乳突小房,為一含氣不規則腔道。

              (一)鼓室

              鼓室是顳骨巖部內含氣的不規則小腔,位于鼓膜與內耳之間。內有聽小骨、韌帶、肌肉等。鼓室內面及其內各結構皆覆有粘膜,此粘膜與咽鼓管、乳突竇、乳突小房結構的粘膜相延續。

              聽小骨有3塊,彼此連接,連于鼓膜與前庭窗之問,與鼓膜接觸的為錘骨,與內耳前庭窗相連的為鐙骨.連于兩者之間的為砧骨。當聲波振動鼓膜時.三個聽小骨的連續運動,將聲波的振動傳入內耳。并能增大壓強20余倍。與聽小骨運動有關的肌肉有鼓膜張肌和鐙骨肌。能調節鼓膜的緊張度和調節對內耳的壓力。對鼓膜和內耳有保護作用。

              鼓室蹙的上壁為一薄骨板與顱中窩相鄰,因此鼓室的炎癥可波及顱內。在內側壁面神經管凸內有面神經通過,由于管壁很薄,有時甚至缺如,故在中耳炎或中耳手術時.易損傷面神經。

              (二)、咽鼓管

              咽鼓管,為連通咽與鼓室之間的管道,可分為外側的骨部和內側的軟骨部。管的外端開口于鼓室前壁;內端開口于咽腔鼻部,借此管維持鼓室與外界氣壓的平衡,保證鼓膜的正常振動,小兒咽鼓管較成人的短粗,且接近水平位,所以,臨床上多見小兒咽部的感染易沿此管侵入鼓室,引起中耳炎。


              三、內耳的組成

              內耳位于顳骨巖鄢的骨質內,鼓室和內耳道底之間,由骨迷路和膜迷路組成。骨迷路是骨性管道,膜迷路是套在骨迷路內封閉的膜性管和囊,由上皮和結締組織構成,充滿內淋巴。膜迷路與骨迷路之間的間隙內充滿外淋巴。內、外淋巴互不相通。

              骨迷路的分部:

              (一)前庭

              在骨迷路中部,外側壁即鼓室內側壁,有前庭窗和蝸窗,分別被鐙骨和第二鼓膜封閉;前壁有孔通耳蝸,后壁有半規管的5個開口。

              (二)骨半規管

              為前、后、外互成直角排列的半環形骨管,膨大處稱骨碰腹。3個半規管有5個口開口于前庭(后壁)。


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