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            軀干骨-2019年專升本醫學綜合復習資料-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月09日

            一、軀干骨的組成

                中軸骨:椎骨24塊(頸椎7塊,胸椎12對,腰椎5塊);骶骨1塊(個低權愈合形成);尾骨1塊(4~5個尾椎愈合形成)

                肋骨12對。

                胸骨1塊。


            二、椎骨的一般形態和各部推骨的特征

               (一)一般形態

                每塊椎骨均由椎體、椎弓及由椎弓伸出的7個突起組成。

                1.椎體為椎骨的前部、呈短圓柱形。是椎骨負重的主要部分,椎體表面為一層較薄的骨密質,其內部為骨松質。故易發生壓縮性骨折。

                2.椎弓弧形骨板。椎弓根部上、下緣有椎切跡。相鄰二椎弓根的椎切跡圍成椎間孔,通行脊神經。椎弓上發出7個突起(2個上關節突、2個下關節突、2個橫突和1個伸向后方的棘突)。椎體和椎弓圍成椎孔,全部椎孔疊加成椎管。

               (二)各部椎骨的特征

               1.頸椎椎體小,椎孔小,有橫突孔,棘突短平而分叉。

               2.胸椎椎體從上向下逐漸增大,有上、下肋凹和模突肋凹,棘突長而傾斜。

               3.腰椎椎體最大、棘突平呈板狀。

               4.骶骨呈底向上尖向下的三角形,前面凹后面凸,有骶前孔、骶后孔、骶岬、骶角、骶管、骶管裂孔及耳狀面等結構。

               5.尾骨 由4塊退化的尾椎組成。


            三、胸骨

               胸骨為扁骨。分為胸骨柄、胸骨體和劍突三部分。柄的上緣凹陷為頸靜脈切跡,兩側有鎖切跡。外側緣有第1肋切跡。柄體交界向前凸出稱胸骨角。胸骨角外側與第2對肋相連結是臨床計數肋的標志。胸骨體外側緣有2~7肋切跡與相應肋相連結。


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