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            《陳情表》-2019年專升本語文學習資料-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2018年12月02日

            《陳情表》

              李密

              課文知識要點提示

              1.作家作品

              本文選自《文選》,該書是我國第一部文學作品總集。《陳情表》是西晉李密寫給晉武帝的一封奏疏。

              2.故事背景

              李密出生六個月就死了父親,四歲時舅父又強迫母親何氏改嫁。他在祖母劉氏的撫養下長大成人,李密以孝敬祖母而聞名。李密幼時體弱多病,甚好學,以文學見長,年輕時,曾任蜀漢尚書郎。泰始三年(267)晉武帝慕李密之名,下詔征密為太子洗馬(官名)。詔書累下,郡縣不斷催促,這時,李密的祖母已九十六歲,年老多病。于是他向晉武帝上表,陳述家里情況,說明自己無法應詔的原因。這就是著名的《陳情事表》,或稱《陳情表》。《陳情表》詞語懇切,委婉動人。表到朝廷,晉武帝為李密對祖母孝心所感動,不僅同意暫不赴詔,還嘉獎他孝敬長輩的誠心,賞賜奴婢二人,并指令所在郡縣,發給他贍養祖母的費用。

              3.不能出仕的理由

              李密陳述自己是為侍奉相依為命且年老多病的祖母,尤其強調自己與祖母之間相互依存的關系,這是他所陳之情的核心,是不仕的唯一事實根據。李密這一舉動對新朝有不忠之嫌,是冒著不合作的風險的。

              4.以子之矛。攻子之盾

              李密采取以子之矛攻子之盾的說理方法:朝廷強調“以孝治天下”,自己不奉詔,正是實踐朝廷提倡的孝行。這樣可以打消晉武帝的懷疑,使自己免于受到責難。

              5.夾敘夾議

              這篇文章雖說是議論文,但是作者意在陳情,所以更多的是陳述自己的苦衷,夾敘夾議,敘議結合。既以理服人,又以情動人。

              6.駢散結合

              文章大量地采用了整齊的四句形式,讀起來朗朗上口,但又不是嚴格的四六文,其中有大量的散文的句式。這種駢散結合的形式,增強了文章的表現力,又不顯得呆板。

              7.成語短語

              《陳情表》以侍親孝順之心感人肺腑,千百年來一直被人們廣為傳誦,影響深遠。文中的一些詞句如“急于星火”“日薄西山”“氣息奄奄”“人命危淺”“朝不慮夕”“煢煢孑立”“形影相吊”“零丁孤苦”“皇天后土”等,至今人們還經常引用,成為成語。


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