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            社會的經濟結構(2)-2019年專升本政治復習考點-福建成教

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月05日

            (三)科學技術與生產力

                科學是反映事物規律的自然知識、社會知識和思維知識的理論體系,技術是科學在生產中的運用,表現為工藝、方法、經驗和能力等。科學技術是生產力中的智能性要素,是知識形態的生產力,即“一般生產力”,它滲透于生產力的三個實體性要素之中,它可以轉化為勞動者的知識和技能,物化于勞動資料之中,擴大勞動對象,轉化為生產管理手段。在現代,科學技術在生產力中的作用和地位越來越重要,它已成為現代生產力的生長點、突破口和決定因素。******指出:科學技術是先進生產力的集中體現和主要標志。在現代生產中,科學技術日益成為第一生產力。理由是:

            (1)它對現代生產力發展起著第一位的變革作用,同生產力發展日益構成倍數或指數關系,引起生產力成倍或跳躍式發展。

            (2)它日益成為現代生產力發展的先導和基礎。在現代生產中,首先是科學的發現和突破,而后應用于生產過程,開辟大批新產業。

            (3)它日益成為推動國民經濟增長的首要因素。科技因素在國民經濟增長諸因素中的比重,已由20世紀初的5%~10%,上升到20世紀中期的50%,20世紀80年代,發達國家已高達60%~80%,有的產業部門甚至達到100%。

                科學技術是第一生產力的實踐意義:它是科教興國戰略的重要理論基礎

                首先,發展生產力必須依靠科技進步和勞動者素質的提高,把經濟建設真正轉到依靠科技進步和提高勞動者素質的軌道上來;其次,努力發展高科技,振興教育,實施科教興國的戰略,把加速科技進步放在社會發展的關鍵地位,才能在激烈競爭中取得主動,也才能實現社會主義現代化;再次,要尊重科學、尊重知識、尊重人才。人類社會的發展是先進生產力不斷取代落后生產力的歷史進程。當一種勞動資料特別是生產工具被改進和發明、具有創新性、從而提高了生產效率時,就出現了先進的生產力,它是科技含量更高的生產力,它很快會取代落后生產力并被推廣使用。人類社會由原始社會到奴隸社會、封建社會、資本主義社會、社會主義和共產主義社會的發展,歸根到底,是由于先進生產力代替落后生產力引起的歷史進程。

                要始終代表中國先進生產力的發展要求,黨的理論、路線、綱領、方針、政策和各項工作,必須努力符合生產力發展的規律,體現不斷推動社會生產力的解放和發展的要求,尤其要體現推動先進生產力發展的要求,通過發展生產力不斷提高人民群眾的生活水平。要敏銳地把握我國社會生產力的發展趨勢和要求,堅持以經濟建設為中心,通過制定和實施正確的路線方針政策,采取切實的工作步驟,不斷改革和創新,不斷提高人的素質,大力發展高科技,從而不斷促進先進生產力的發展,開拓促進先進生產力發展的新途徑。


            (四)生產關系的本質和內在結構

                 生產關系是在生產過程中發生的人與人之間的社會關系,它體現了人們之間的物質利益關系,是最基本的社會關系,是生產力的社會形式

                生產關系包括:生產資料的所有制關系,人們在生產中的地位和交換關系,產品分配關系以及由它直接決定的消費關系。其中,生產資料所有制關系決定生產關系的其他方面,是整個生產關系的基礎,生產關系本質上就是生產資料所有制關系,有什么樣的生產資料所有制關系,就有什么樣的人與人的關系。生產關系貫穿于生產、分配、交換和消費的動態全過程,生產環節處于主導地位。


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