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            社會的文化結構(1)-2019年專升本政治復習考點-福建函授

            福建成人高考信息網www.laiwobuy.com 發布時間: 2019年01月06日

            (一)意識形態與文化結構

                社會意識可以區分為個體意識和群體意識、社會心理、社會意識形式和社會意識形態。在社會意識形式中,那些反映經濟基礎、在階級社會中反映一定階級、社會集團的利益并為之服務的意識形式,稱為意識形態。它與經濟基礎及政治上層建筑相對應,又被稱為意識形態上層建筑、思想上層建筑或觀念上層建筑,包括政治法律思想、道德、藝術、宗教、哲學等形式。社會的文化結構是以意識形態為主要內容,同時包括非意識形態(不反映一定階級、集團的利益,如自然科學、語言學、形式邏輯等)相互聯結形成的有機系統。

            (二)意識形態的本質

             意識形態是社會存在的反映,這就是意識形態的本質。這是因為:

            (1)意識形態根源于社會存在,有什么樣的社會存在就有什么樣的意識形態的內容和形式,社會存在是意識形態產生的物質根源。

            (2)意識形態隨社會存在的變化而變化,社會存在發生了變化,意識形態或遲或早會發生相應變化。

            (3)在階級社會中,意識形態是階級利益的反映,有階級性。

            (4)在一定社會中,統治階級的思想是占統治地位的思想。在經濟上占統治地位,在思想上、精神上也必然占統治地位。資產階級意識形態是資本主義社會占統治地位的思想體系,其核心是利己主義,其理論基礎是資產階級抽象人性論。無產階級意識形態是社會主義社會占統治地位的思想體系。

            (三)意識形態的相對獨立性及其社會功能

            1.意識形態的相對獨立性的表現

            (1)意識形態和社會存在發展的不完全同步性,它往往落后于社會存在,或能預見未來。

            (2)意識形態同經濟發展水平的不平衡性。經濟發展程度較高,意識形態卻相對落后;經濟發展水平較落后,意識形態卻相對先進。

            (3)意識形態發展的歷史繼承性。每一歷史時期的意識形態,總是繼承了過去的意識形態成果。

            (4)各種不同的意識形態相互作用、相互影響、相互滲透,推動意識形態的發展。

            (5)意識形態對社會存在具有反作用,這是其相對獨立性的最突出表現。先進的意識形態推動社會存在的發展,落后的意識形態阻礙社會存在的發展。其反作用是通過人的實踐實現的,反作用的大小取決于它影響群眾的廣度和深度。


            2.意識形態的社會功能

            (1)它對人們確立和堅持一定的世界觀、價值觀、人生觀、行為規范、審美情趣、理想信念等起著指導和制約作用,為人們的實踐活動提供精神力量。進步、革命的意識形態振奮人民群眾的革命精神,是進步、革命階級和勢力的精神武器,落后、腐朽的意識形態腐蝕人民群眾的思想,是落后、反動階級和勢力的精神支柱。

            (2)它為一定階級、階層和勢力制定政策和方略提供理論依據。

            (3)它具有對社會、歷史和人們的實踐活動進行批判或維護的功能。意識形態不僅反映社會存在,而且能夠評價;評價的結果便是肯定或否定及相應的維護或批判。

            (4)它具有調控社會和人的實踐活動的功能。


            3.這一原理的意義

            要認識到代表先進文化的發展方向和精神文明建設的重要性。精神文明指人們認識客觀世界和改造主觀世界的積極成果,屬于社會意識的范疇。它和物質文明互為條件,互為目的。社會主義精神文明保證物質文明的社會主義方向;為物質文明提供精神動力和智力支持,以及健康向上的精神環境;能克服、抵制錯誤思想的泛濫和侵蝕,提高整個民族的思想道德和科學文化素質,培養一代社會主義新人;能進一步完善社會主義制度,發揮社會主義制度的活力和優越性,提高勞動生產率。要反對否認精神文明建設重要性的自發論。


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